By Martin Glassner
This learn is an outgrowth of an curiosity within the query of entry to the ocean built via the writer in the course of a ten-month sojourn in the course of 1962 and 1963 as American Vice Consul in Antofagasta, Chile. in this interval he had the chance to go to Peru thrice and Bolivia two times. This event, supplemented by means of examine in lots of libraries in ny, Washington and California and via interviews, records and different reference fabrics, led to an in depth learn of Bolivia's crusade for an outlet to the ocean. 1 the current research has drawn a few fabric from the sooner one, yet is such an complex growth of it that it could actually good be thought of a totally new attempt. the hassle was once made as the challenge of entry to the ocean has develop into extra serious because the moment global struggle because the emphasis on exchange and fiscal improvement has grown whereas even as many new land-locked states have been being born. There have, furthermore, been extra threatened and genuine interferences with loose transit in this interval than through the previous part century and extra. a radical exam of the topic appeared so as, then, as an relief to an knowing of the issues concerned and as a consultant to destiny makes an attempt to unravel them. as well as a normal survey of the query, 3 case stories were incorporated either as illustrations of a lot of those difficulties and as particular occasions wherein to check proposed solutions.
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Additional resources for Access to the Sea for Developing Land-Locked States
The most important, and the only one that is navigable, is the Arnu Darya, known historically as the Oxus. This river rises high in the Pamirs, flows westward through northeastern Afghanistan and along the Soviet border, then northward through the Kara Kum Desert, eventually to empty into the Aral Sea. Below Bakhorak the Arnu Darya is broad and meandering with many islands. The left, or Afghan, bank is low and subject to flooding; the right, or Soviet, bank is firmer and all of the sizable river towns are on the Soviet side.
2) The countries be urged to negotiate and conclude bilateral agreements in conformity with the principles of the Barcelona Statute, The Havana Charter and the GATT ... [and] bear in mind ... also the necessity for adopting concrete administrative procedures and practices ... [to] facilitate the implementation of the basic principles of freedom of transit. (3) ... that the officials and personnel handling or dealing with the various phases of transit trade be imparted proper training ... (4) ...
In the first place, states have used their ability to interfere with the right of transit of goods across their territory as an instrument of national policy . . Elsewhere the threat or even the fear that transit rights would be denied have prevented some countries from making use of rights which were legally theirs ... " There had been others, however, notably Pakistan's closure of her border with Afghanistan in 1949 and again in 1953. It was this situation that led to the next step in clarifying, expanding and formalizing the rights of land-locked states to access to the sea.
Access to the Sea for Developing Land-Locked States by Martin Glassner