Download e-book for kindle: A Natural History of Trees: of Eastern and Central North by Donald Peattie, Paul Landacre, Robert Finch

By Donald Peattie, Paul Landacre, Robert Finch

One of 2 real classics of yankee nature writing now in paperback; the opposite is A ordinary historical past of Western Trees.

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Additional info for A Natural History of Trees: of Eastern and Central North America

Sample text

Such ordered packing is a feature of crystalline materials. The carbon-oxygen skeletal structure of cellulose can be determined by X-ray diffraction (Fig. 4b). £n'st~lline state cellulose may be envisaged as being built up of identical repetitious units, which crystallographers term the unit cell (Fig. 3a). The entire crystalline region may be generated by translating the unit cell by distances that are multiples of the lattice parameters of the unit cell in the three crystallographic directions (Fig.

Actually the ring is puckered, with the Cv C3 and C5 carbons lying in one plane and the C2, C4 and the 0 5 atom in the ring lying in another plane which is slightly displaced laterally from the former (Fig. 1d). The individual carbons are numbered as in the aldehydo form (Fig. 1e). Cellulose is a natural polymer containing thousands of ~-D-glucose units linked by glucosidic linkages (C-O-C) at the C1 and C4 positions (Fig. 2a). Each unit is rotated through 180 0 with respect to its neighbours, so that the structure repeats itself every two units.

If this hydroxyl lies to the right in the Fisher projection (Fig. 1b) it is a D-sugar; if it lies to the left it is an L-sugar (Guthrie, 1974). The other three central carbon atoms, C4, C3 and C2, also display asymmetry. Thus there are 24 different ways of spatially representing the above hexose sugar formula (eight pairs of enantiomorphs). They have the same general chemical formula, C6H 120 6, but differ in the spatial positions of the hydrogen atom and the hydroxyl group about each of the four central carbon atoms.

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A Natural History of Trees: of Eastern and Central North America by Donald Peattie, Paul Landacre, Robert Finch


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