By John C. Kricher
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Additional resources for A field guide to California and Pacific Northwest forests
As an alternative hypothesis, I would propose that high safety factors are incompatible with growth in deep shade, and that sugar maple increases its safety factor only when it is energetically affordable (see Section III,B,3 for additional discussion). ,IPoOo OO ~C,,o. " Safety factor (d/d,~,) as a function of height in sugar maple (after King, 1986). , needed to avoid elastic buckling (sensu McMahon, 1973). 1. , 1976; King, 1986). Wood strength is proportional to its density (McMahon, 1973). But, while denser woods are stiffer, they impose a proportionally greater bending moment in stems of a given height, on the basis of the greater mass of wood above a given point.
Monk and T. Givnish, unpublished data). Lines represent least mean square regressions. 05, ANCOVA) than that for Ulmus, indicating that, at least for this pair of species, the initial construction cost of rachises is less than that for twigs bearing comparable loads. cently gathered data that support this assumption (Fig. 15). Fully expanded compound leaves were collected from six species, and annual twigs with attached foliage were collected from six species with simple leaves. Lever arms were measured, and the fresh and dry masses of individual leaves/ leaflets and intervening portions of rachises/twigs determined.
0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 Distribution of arching herbs along a gradient of slope inclination q in the Great Smoky Mountains (after Givnish, 1986b). Top: Average percent coverage by Disporum lanuginosum, Polygonatum biflorum, and Smilacina racemosa. Bottom: Percent of quadrats with arching herbs present. 8 - Relativerate of height growth predicted for fixed ratios of biomass allocation to crown vs bole in aspen (P0pulustremuloides) (after King, 1981). 17) atop a broad optimum. forests, suggesting that plants in crowded stands are generally designed so as to maximize height growth.
A field guide to California and Pacific Northwest forests by John C. Kricher